Papers not found in CO2Science’s Ocean Acidification database

Nova and CO2Science are deceptive by suggesting they “1103 studies on acidification” – what they have is 1,103 numbers from 74 papers. In just a couple of hours I have been able to list dozens more papers that are NOT included in CO2Science’s database.

Albright, R., Mason, B., Miller, M. & Langdon, C. 2010. Ocean acidification compromises recruitment success of the threatened Caribbean coral Acropora palmata. – These results suggest that OA has the potential to impact multiple, sequential early life history stages, thereby severely compromising sexual recruitment and the ability of coral reefs to recover from disturbance.

Anthony, K.R.N., Kline, D.I., Diaz-Pulido, G., Dove, S. & Hoegh-Guldberg, O. 2008. Ocean acidification causes bleaching and productivity loss in coral reef builders. – Our findings suggest that sensitive reef-building species such as CCA may be pushed beyond their thresholds for growth and survival within the next few decades whereas corals will show delayed and mixed responses.

Arnold, K.E., Findlay, H.S., Spicer, J.I., Daniels, C.L. & Boothroyd, D. 2009. Effects of CO2-related acidification on aspects of the larval development of the European lobster, Homarus gammarus (L.). – OA related (indirect) disruption of calcification and carapace mass might still adversely affect the competitive fitness and recruitment success of larval lobsters with serious consequences for population dynamics and marine ecosystem function.

Beniash, E., Ivanina, A., Lieb, N.S., Kurochkin, I. & Sokolova, I.M. 2010. Elevated level of carbon dioxide affects metabolism and shell formation in oysters Crassostrea virginica. – These data strongly suggest that the rise in CO2 can impact physiology and biomineralization in marine calcifiers such as eastern oysters, threatening their survival and potentially leading to profound ecological and economic impacts in estuarine ecosystems.

Bibby, R., Widdicombe, S., Parry, H., Spicer, J. & Pipe, R. 2008. Effects of ocean acidification on the immune response of the blue mussel Mytilus edulis. – These results suggest that ocean acidification may impact the physiological condition and functionality of the haemocytes and could have a significant effect on cellular signalling pathways, particularly those pathways that rely on specific concentrations of calcium, and so may be disrupted by calcium carbonate shell dissolution.

Byrne, M., Soars, N.A., Ho, M.A., Wong, E., McElroy D., Selvakumaraswamy P., Dworjanyn, S.A. & Davis, A.R. 2010a. Fertilization in a suite of coastal marine invertebrates from SE Australia is robust to nearfuture ocean warming and acidification. – Efforts to identify potential impacts of ocean change to the life histories of coastal marine invertebrates are best to focus on more vulnerable embryonic and larval stages because of their long time in the water column where seawater chemistry and temperature have a major impact on development.

Cigliano, M., Gambi, M.C., Rodolfo-Metalpa, R., Patti, F.P. & Hall-Spencer, J.M. 2010. Effects of ocean acidification on invertebrate settlement at CO2 volcanic vents. – increased levels of CO2 can profoundly affect the settlement of a wide range of benthic organisms.

Comeau, S., Gorsky, G., Jeffree, R., Teyssié, J.-L. & Gattuso, J.-P. 2009. Impact of ocean acidification on a key Arctic pelagic mollusk (Limacina helicina). – This result supports the concern for the future of pteropods in a high-CO2 world, as well as of those species dependent upon them as a food resource. A decline of their populations would likely cause dramatic changes to the structure, function and services of polar ecosystems.

Ryan N. Crim, Jennifer M. Sunday, Christopher D.G. Harley, 2011. Elevated seawater CO2 concentrations impair larval development and reduce larval survival in endangered northern abalone (Haliotis kamtschatkana). – Near future levels of CO2 will likely pose a significant additional threat to this species, which is already endangered with extinction due in part to limited reproductive output and larval recruitment.

Dupont, S., Ortega-Martínez, O. & Thorndyke, M.C. 2010a. Impact of near future ocean acidification on echinoderms. – available data allow us to conclude that near-future OA will have negative impact on echinoderm taxa with likely significant consequences at the ecosystem level.

Edwards, M. & Richardson, A.J. 2004. Impact of climate change on marine pelagic phenology and trophic mismatch. – The decoupling of phenological relationships will have important ramifications for trophic interactions, altering food-web structures and leading to eventual ecosystem-level changes.

Egilsdottir, H., Spicer, J.I. & Rundle, S.D. 2009. The effect of CO2 acidified sea water and reduced salinity on aspects of the embryonic development of the amphipod Echinogammarus marinus (Leach). – Ocean acidification may affect aspects of E. marinus development but exposure to realistic low salinities appear, in the short term, to be more important in impacting development than exposure to CO2 acidified sea water at levels predicted for 300 years time.

Ellis, R.P., Bersey, J., Rundle, S.D., Hall-Spencer, J. & Spicer, J.I. 2009. Subtle but significant effects of CO2 acidified sea water on embryos of the intertidal snail, Littorina obtusata. – Our findings show that ocean acidification may have multiple, subtle effects during the early development of marine animals that may have implications for their survival beyond those predicted using later life stages.

Ericson, J.A., Lamare, M.D., Morley, S.A. & Barker, M.F. 2010. The response of two ecologically important Antarctic invertebrates (Sterechinus neumayeri and Parborlasia corrugatus) to reduced seawater pH: Effects on fertilisation and embryonic development. – n S. neumayeri, an effect of pH on development was evident by the gastrula stage, while there were significantly more abnormal P. corrugatus embryos in pH 7.0 up to the blastula stage, and in pH 7.0 and pH 7.3 at the coeloblastula stage.

Fabry, V.J., Seibel, B.A., Feely, R.A. & Orr, J.C. 2008. Impacts of ocean acidification on marine fauna and ecosystem processes. – We conclude that ocean acidification and the synergistic impacts of other anthropogenic stressors provide great potential for widespread changes to marine ecosystems.

Findlay, H.S., Kendall, M.A., Spicer, J.I. & Widdicombe, S. 2010b. Relative influences of ocean acidification and temperature on intertidal barnacle post-larvae at the northern edge of their geographic distribution. – there could be long-term implications on the fitness of these barnacles, which in turn may prevent them from successfully colonising new areas.

Gutowska, M.A., Melzner, F., Pörtner, H.O. & Meier, S. 2010b. Cuttlebone calcification increases during exposure to elevated seawater pCO2in the cephalopod Sepia officinalis. – The potential negative impact of increased calcification in the cuttlebone of S. officinalis is discussed with regard to its function as a lightweight and highly porous buoyancy regulation device. Further studies working with lower seawater pCO2 values are necessary to evaluate if the observed phenomenon is of ecological relevance.

Gutowska, M.A., Pörtner, H.O. & Melzner, F. 2008. Growth and calcification in the cephalopod Sepia officinalis under elevated seawater pCO2. – Our general understanding of the mechanistic processes that limit calcification must improve before we can begin to predict what effects future ocean acidification will have on calcifying marine invertebrates.

Hale, R., Calosi, P., McNeill, L., Mieszkowska, N. & Widdicombe, S. 2011. Predicted levels of future ocean acidification and temperature rise could alter community structure and biodiversity in marine benthic communities. – This community-based mesocosm study supports previous suggestions, based on observations of direct physiological impacts, that ocean acidification induced changes in marine biodiversity will be driven by differential vulnerability within and between different taxonomical groups.

Hall-Spencer, J.M., Rodolfo-Metalpa, R., Martin, S., Ransome, E., Fine, M., Turner, S.M., Rowley, S.J., Tedesco, D. & Buia, M.C. 2008. Volcanic carbon dioxide vents reveal ecosystem effects of ocean acidification. – The species populating the vent sites comprise a suite of organisms that are resilient to naturally high concentrations of p(CO(2)) and indicate that ocean acidification may benefit highly invasive non-native algal species.

Havenhand, J.N., Butler, F.R., Thorndyke, M.C. & Williamson, J.E. 2008. Near-future levels of ocean acidification reduce fertilization success in a sea urchin. – For taxa with calcareous larval or post-larval skeletons, additional acidification-induced reductions in body size [10] will increase mortality rates still further, threatening the viability of populations, species and ecosystems.

Hendriks, I.E., Duarte, C.M. & Álvarez, A. 2010. Vulnerability of marine biodiversity to ocean acidification: a meta-analysis. – Calcification is most sensitive to ocean acidification while it is questionable if marine functional diversity is impacted significantly along the ranges of acidification predicted for the 21st century.

Hoegh-Guldberg, O., Mumby, P.J., Hooten, A.J., Steneck, R.S., Greenfield, P., Gomez, E., Harvell, C.D., Sale, P.F., Edwards, A.J., Caldeira, K., Knowlton, N., Eakin, C.M., Iglesias-Prieto, R., Muthiga, N., Bradbury, R.H., Dubi, S. & Hatziolos, M.E. 2007. Coral reefs under rapid climate change and ocean acidification. – This review presents future scenarios for coral reefs that predict increasingly serious consequences for reef-associated fisheries, tourism, coastal protection, and people.

Kiessling, W. & Simpson, C. 2011. On the potential for ocean acidification to be a general cause of ancient reef crises. – We conclude that four of five global metazoan reef crises in the last 500 Myr were probably at least partially governed by OA and rapid global warming.

Kroeker, J.J., Kordas, R.L., Crim, R.N., & Singh, G.G. 2010. Meta-analysis reveals negative yet variable effects of ocean acidification on marine organisms. – Our analyses suggest that the biological effects of ocean acidification are generally large and negative, but the variation in sensitivity amongst organisms has important implications for ecosystem responses.

Kurihara, H. 2008. Effects of CO2-driven ocean acidification on the early development stages of invertebrates. – The conclusion is that future changes in ocean acidity will potentially impact the population size and dynamics, as well as the community structure of calcifiers, and will therefore have negative impacts on marine ecosystems.

Kurihara, H., Kato, S. & Ishimatsu, A. 2007. Effects of increased seawater pCO2 on early development of the oyster Crassotrea gigas. – Our results suggest that future ocean acidification will have deleterious impacts on the early development of marine benthic calcifying organisms.

Kurihara, H., Kato, S. & Ishimatsu, A. 2008a. Effects of elevated pCO2 on early development in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. – Taken together with recent studies demonstrating negative impacts of high CO2 on adult mussels and oysters, results imply a future decrease of bivalve populations in the oceans, unless acclimation to the predicted environmental alteration occurs.

Kim E. Reuter, Katie E. Lotterhos, Ryan N. Crim, Catherine A. Thompson, Christopher D. G. Harley, 2011. Elevated pCO2 increases sperm limitation and risk of polyspermy in the red sea urchin Strongylocentrotus franciscanus – Given the inherent difficulties in achieving high fertilization success in broadcast spawners, raised pCO2 levels are likely to exacerbate low fertilization success in low-density populations or in areas with high water turbulence.

Kurihara, H., Matsui, M., Furukawa, H., Hayashi, M. & Ishimatsu, A. 2008b. Long-term effects of predicted future seawater CO2 conditions on the survival and growth of the marine shrimp Palaemon pacificus. – The present results demonstrate for the first time that the predicted future seawater CO2 conditions would potentially reduce shrimp, and possibly other crustacean, populations through negatively affecting mortality, growth, and reproduction. This could threaten entire marine ecosystem through disrupting marine food web.

Mayor, D.J., Matthew, C., Cook, K., Zuur, A.F. & Hay S. 2007. CO2-induced acidification affects hatching success in Calanus finmarchicus. – Growth (egg production and biomass loss) in adult female copepods was not affected by the simulated ocean acidification. In contrast, a maximum of only 4% of the eggs successfully yielded nauplii after 72 h in the experimental treatment.

McClintock, J.B., Angus, R.A., Mcdonald, M.R., Amsler, C.D., Catledge, S.A. & Vohra, Y.K. 2009. Rapid dissolution of shells of weakly calcified Antarctic benthic macroorganisms indicate high vulnerability to ocean acidification. – these organisms, and the communities they comprise, are likely to be among the first to experience the cascading impacts of ocean acidification.

McDonald, M.R., McClintock, J.B., Amsler, C.D., Rittschof, D., Angus, R.A., Orihuela, B. & Lutostanski, K. 2009. Effects of ocean acidification over the life history of the barnacle Amphibalanus amphitrite. – Despite enhanced calcification, penetrometry revealed that the central shell wall plates required significantly less force to penetrate than those of individuals raised at pH 8.2. Thus, dissolution rapidly weakens wall shells as they grow.

McNeil, B.I. & Matear, R. 2008. Southern Ocean acidification: a tipping point at 450-ppm atmospheric CO2. – Some prominent calcifying plankton, in particular the Pteropod species Limacina helicina, have important veliger larval development during winter and will have to experience detrimental carbonate conditions much earlier than previously thought, with possible deleterious flow-on impacts for the wider Southern Ocean marine ecosystem.

Metzger, R., Sartoris, F.J., Lagenbuch, M. & Pörtner H.O. 2007. Influence of elevated CO2 concentrations on thermal tolerance of the edible crab Cancer pagurus. – Hypercapnia (1% CO2) caused a significant reduction of oxygen partial pressure in the haemolymph as well as a large, 5 °C downward shift of upper thermal limits of aerobic scope. The present findings are the first to show that hypercapnia causes enhanced sensitivity to heat and thus, a narrowing of the thermal tolerance window of a marine ectotherm.

Miles, H., Widdicombe, S., Spicer, J.I. & Hall-Spencer, J. 2007. Effects of anthropogenic seawater acidification on acid-base balance in the sea urchin Psammechinus miliaris. – We show that a chronic reduction of surface water pH to below 7.5 would be severely detrimental to the acid–base balance of this predominantly intertidal species; despite its ability to tolerate fluctuations in pCO2 and pH in the rock pool environment.

Miller, A.W., Reynolds, A.C., Sobrino, C. & Riedel, G.F. 2009. Shellfish face uncertain futures in high CO2 world: influence of acidification in oyster larvae calcification and growth in estuaries. – Our results suggest that temperate estuarine and coastal ecosystems are vulnerable to the expected changes in water chemistry due to elevated atmospheric CO2 and that biological responses to acidification, especially calcifying biota, will be species-specific and therefore much more variable and complex than reported previously.

Munday, P.L., Dixson, D.L., Donelson, J.M., Jones, G.P., Pratchett, M.S., Devitsina, K.P. & Doving, K.B. 2009. Ocean acidification impairs olfactory discrimination and homing ability of a marine fish. – If acidification continues unabated, the impairment of sensory ability will reduce population sustainability of many marine species, with potentially profound consequences for marine diversity.

Nakamura, M., Ohki, S., Suzuki, A. & Sakai, K. 2011. Coral larvae under ocean acidification: survival, metabolism and metamorphosis. – These results imply that acidified seawater impacts larval physiology, suggesting that suppressed metabolism and metamorphosis may alter the dispersal potential of larvae and subsequently reduce the resilience of coral communities in the near future as the ocean pH decreases.

Ned W. Pankhurst A C and Philip L. Munday B 2011. Effects of climate change on fish reproduction and early life history stages – A companion effect of marine climate change is ocean acidification, which may pose a significant threat through its capacity to alter larval behaviour and impair sensory capabilities.

Nienhuis, S., Palmer, A. & Harley, C. 2010. Elevated CO2 affects shell dissolution rate but not calcification rate in a marine snail. – Ocean acidification may therefore have a greater effect on shell dissolution than on shell deposition, at least in temperate marine molluscs.

O’Donnell, M.J., Hammond, L.M. & Hoffman, G.E. 2009. Predicted impact of ocean acidification on a marine invertebrate: elevated CO2 alters response to thermal stress in sea urchin larvae. – When larvae raised under elevated CO2 conditions were subjected to 1-h acute temperature stress, their ability to mount a physiological response (as measured by expression of the molecular chaperone hsp70) was reduced relative to those raised under ambient CO2 conditions.

O’Donnell, M.J., Todgham, A.E., Sewell, M.A., LaTisha, M.H., Ruggiero, K., Fangue, N.A., Zippay, M.L. & Hofmann, G.E. 2010. Ocean acidification alters skeletogenesis and gene expression in larval sea urchins. – Taken together, these results suggest that, although larvae are able to form an endoskeleton, development at elevated CO2 levels has consequences for larval physiology as shown by changes in the larval transcriptome.

Parker, L.M., Ross, P.M. & O’Connor, W.A. 2009. The effect of ocean acidification and temperature on the fertilization and embryonic development of the Sydney rock oyster Saccostrea glomerata (Gould 1850). – The results of this study suggest that predicted changes in ocean acidification and temperature over the next century may have severe implications for the distribution and abundance of S. glomerata as well as possible implications for the reproduction and development of other marine invertebrates.

Parker, L.M., Ross, P.M. & O’Connor, W.A. 2010. Comparing the effect of elevated pCO2 and temperature on the fertilization and early development of two species of oysters. – At elevated pCO2 and suboptimal temperatures, there was a reduction in the fertilization success of gametes, a reduction in the development of embryos and size of larvae and spat and an increase in abnormal morphology of larvae.

Pörtner, H.O., Langenbuch, M. & Reipschläger, A. 2004. Biological impact of elevated ocean CO2 concentrations: lessons from animal physiology and earth history. – Long-term effects expected at population and species levels are in line with recent considerations of a detrimental role of CO2 during mass extinctions in the earth’s history.

Pörtner, H.O. 2008. Ecosystem effects of ocean acidification in times of ocean warming: a physiologist’s view. – These changes in bioenvelopes may have major implications for the ranges of geographical distribution of these organisms and in species interactions.

Sheppard Brennand, H., Soars, N., Dworjanyn, S.A., Davis, A.R. & Byrne, M. 2010. Impact of ocean warming and ocean acidification on larval development and calcification in the sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla. – Reduction in size of sea urchin larvae in a high PCO2 ocean would likely impair their performance with negative consequent effects for benthic adult populations.

Suwa, R., Nakamura, M., Morita, M., Shimada, K., Iguchi, A., Sakai, K. & Suzuki, A. 2010. Effects of acidified seawater on early life stages of scleractinian corals (genus Acropora). – polyp growth and algal infection rates were significantly decreased at reduced pH levels compared to control conditions.

Talmage, S.C. & Gobler, C.J. 2009. The effects of elevated carbon dioxide concentrations on the metamorphosis, size, and survival of larval hard clams (Mercenaria mercenaria), bay scallops (Argopecten irradians), and Eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica). – The extreme sensitivity of larval stages of shellfish to enhanced levels of CO2 indicates that current and future increases in pelagic CO2 concentrations may deplete or alter the composition of shellfish populations in coastal ecosystems.

Todgham, A.E. & Hofmann, G.E. 2009. Transcriptomic response of sea urchin larvae Strongylocentrotus purpuratus to CO2-driven seawater acidification. – In response to both elevated CO2 scenarios, larvae underwent broad scale decreases in gene expression in four major cellular processes: biomineralization, cellular stress response, metabolism and apoptosis.

Tunnicliffe, V., Davies, K.T.A., Butterfield, D.A., Embley, R.W., Rose, J.M. & Chadwick, W.W. 2009. Survival of mussels in extremely acidic waters on a submarine volcano. – the vulnerability of molluscs to predators is likely to increase in a future ocean with low pH.

Turley, C.M., Roberts, J.M. & Guinotte J.M. 2007. Corals in deep-water: will the unseen hand of ocean acidification destroy cold-water exosystems? Coral Reefs 26, 445–448.

Veron, J.E.N. 2009. Mass extinctions and ocean acidification: biological constraints on geological dilemmas. – This study concludes that acidification has the potential to trigger a sixth mass extinction event and to do so independently of anthropogenic extinctions that are currently taking place.

Watson, S.-A., Southgate, P.C., Tyler, P.A. & Peck, L. 2009. Early larval development of the Sydney rock oyster Saccostrea glomerata under near-future predictions of CO2 driven ocean acidification. – Larval life-history stages are considered particularly susceptible to climate change, and this study shows that S. glomerata larvae are sensitive to a high-C02 world and are, specifically, negatively affected by exposure to pH conditions predicted for the world’s oceans for the year 2100.

Widdicombe, S. & Spicer, J.I. 2008. Predicting the impact of ocean acidification on benthic biodiversity: what can animal physiology tell us? Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 366, 187–197.

Wood, H.L., Spicer, J.I. & Widdicombe, S. 2008. Ocean acidification may increase calcification rates, but at a cost. – this upregulation of metabolism and calcification, potentially ameliorating some of the effects of increased acidity comes at a substantial cost (muscle wastage) and is therefore unlikely to be sustainable in the long term.

Wootten, J.T., Pfister, C.A. & Forester, J.D. 2008. Dynamic patterns and ecological impacts of declining ocean pH in a high-resolution multi-year dataset. – Our results indicate that pH decline is proceeding at a more rapid rate than previously predicted in some areas, and that this decline has ecological consequences for near shore benthic ecosystems.

Sadly CO2Science and Nova once again misrepresent the science.

3 Responses to “Papers not found in CO2Science’s Ocean Acidification database”

  1. Hank Roberts Says:

    Thank you.

    Posted a cross-reference at

    Nature Climate Change | Climate Feedback
    More for the annals of climate misinformation

  2. CO2 Science Says:

    You accuse CO2 Science as “being deceptive” when, in fact, if you would have actually READ what we say about our database in the Background describing it, you would have found the following:

    “Nevertheless, articles continue to be published in peer-reviewed journals on both sides of the issue, making it difficult to get to the bottom of what impact rising atmospheric carbon dioxide will really have on marine life. For every article that seems to present the issue in a negative light, there is a counter article that presents it in a positive light.”

    Further, if you had actually examined the database, you would see that CO2 Science has posted both positive and negative results in the database.

    CO2 Science has NEVER claimed this database to be the end all of the debate. It merely points out the fallacy of the several alarmist claims akin to the pronouncement that ‘ocean life is doomed because of rising CO2 concentrations.’ Indeed, as many peer-reviewed studies have shown, and as has been documented in the database, many aquatic organisms respond in a positive manner to mild pH reductions expected in the near future through the end of the century.

    • itsnotnova Says:

      If you had read what I said about your crap “scientific” approach you wouldn’t be making the same stupid mistake a second time.

      Growth of one species at the expense of another results in less biodiversity – NOT a good thing. The growth of harmful bacteria is NOT a good thing. CO2Science focus on pure numbers without regard for the actual consequence of a species growth or decline.

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